Primary and Secondary Battery
Primary Batteries are those which we see every day and use them. These batteries
come in cylindrical configuration and are simple and a convenient source of
power for several portable electronic and electrical devices like cameras, watches,
toys, radios and many more.
Usually primary Batteries are inexpensive, lightweight, small and very
convenient to use with very less or no maintenance.
Up until 1970 , Zinc anode- based batteries were the predominant primary
Batteries. Later zinc- carbon based batteries were invented .
The most significant development in the battery technology took place during the
1970-1990 period .
It is during this time, the famous Zinc/Alkaline Manganese Dioxide batteries
were developed and slowly replaced with the older Zinc-Carbon types.
Okay I’ll. Make it easy for you !! these are those 9V battery which we use in so
many electronic applications.
Mostly they are constructed of six individual 1.5V cells enclosed in a wrapper,
where zinc is anode and manganese is cathode.
To keep it short and simple : These are the rechargeable batteries .
These batteries can be used in two ways:
1)They are used as energy storage devices .
where they are electrically connected to the main energy source to be charged by it
and also supplying energy when required.
Best explained examples can be
Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV) , Uninterrupted
power supplies (UPS), etc.
2) Is where the battery is used and discharged as a primary Battery. Once it is
completely discharged, instead of throwing it away we recharge it with an appropriate
charger. Best Examples are our mobile phones, laptop, electric vehicles, power
History about secondary batteries
The oldest and The first type of secondary Batteries were the lead acid battery
which was developed in the late 1850’s.
These were most commonly
used lead acid which dominated till date as we see
in automobile industry.
These lead acid batteries are based on lead-dioxide electrochemical couple. And
sulfuric acid as the electrolyte.
The second type of rechargeable batteries are nickel – cadmium batteries.
These batteries were developed in the early 1900’s.
Where nickel oxyhydroxide is as the positive electrode and cadmium metal
based as the negative electrode and the electrolyte is an alkaline solution of
Then the game changer steps in and its our very own lithium batteries,which
were proposed by British chemist M.Stanley Whittingham in the 1970’s.