Lithium Battery Types
LITHIUM ION BATTERIES
Lithium ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles . A prototype of batteries was developed by Akira yoshino in 1985 .
Later a commercial Li-ion battery was developed by Sony and Asahi kasei team led by yoshio nishi in 1991.
Working of a lithium ion battery is very basic. Li- ion moves from the negative electrode to the positive electrode through an electrolyte during discharge and back when charging.
These batteries used intercalated lithium compound as the material at the positive electrode and graphite at the negative electrode.
These batteries are preferable because of their high energy density, no memory effect and low self-discharge.
LITHIUM MANGANESE OXIDE
The lithium manganese oxide or LiMn2O4 or Li- manganese.
This is a lithium cell that uses manganese dioxide as the cathode material.
Its because manganese oxide components are abundant, inexpensive , non-toxic and provide better thermal stability.
LITHIUM COBALT OXIDE
Lithium Cobalt oxide is a dark bluish grey crystalline solid and is commonly used in the positive electrodes of lithium batteries.
it is very harmful to be use.
That is because this battery goes under a high exothermic reaction which can spread to its adjacent cell or ignite the nearby combustible materials .
LITHIUM NICKLE MANGANESE COBALT OXIDE
You must be wondering who placed all these random elements in a statement. But apparently the battery is made up of all these materials.
It can also be written as NMC.
it’s composition is the oxides of lithium, nickel, manganese and Cobalt.
Nowadays NMCs is among the most important storage material in lithium batteries they are used on the positive pole which acts as the cathode during discharge.
These batteries are installed in some popular luxury cars like, BMW ActiveE in 2001 and BMW i8 in 2013, as of 2020 the list gets bigger- Audi e-tron GE,BMW i3,Chevrolet Bolt and many.
LITHIUM NICKLE COBALT ALUMINIUM OXIDE
it’s also called as NCR
It is very similar to NMC but manganese swapped its place with aluminium in the cathode.
This swapping of aluminium helps NCA cells achieve the highest capacity of all lithium battery chemistry.
But on the other hand , the downside is : a slight decrease in the life-cycle and power as compared to other chemistry .
Now you must be wondering why to use NCA over NMC??
it’s because NCA enables battery with high energy density and is also supports excellent fast charging.
Example of an NCA cell is Panasonic NCR 18650B which was used for most of all Tesla’s early electric vehicles.
you know the cell is good when Tesla started using it.
Few more advantages of this cell is in packing the most energy into the smallest space with large enough battery and its lower relative power can be mitigated too. After observing all these advantages we can say that NCA is quite a competition to NMC.